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Category: Biology (page 2 of 3)

DNA Repair Mechanisms

Sources of DNA Damage

 Source  Damage  Repair
ROS  abasic sites, DNA crosslinks, base modifications (bulky and non-bulky)  NER, BER
Replication Errors  Incorrectly paired nucleotides  DNA Pol proofreading, MMR
UV Radiation  NER
 – UV-A Creation of free radicals (indirect damage)
 – UV-B Creation of primer dimers, crosslinking between adjacent C&T
Radiation  Double strand breaks  NHEJ, HR
Hydrolysis  deamination, abasic sites  NER, BER
Toxins DNA adducts, crosslinking, oxidized bases, alkylated phosphotriesters  BER, NER
Thermal Disruption  Depurination BER

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Signaling Pathways

Signaling Pathways

  • SMAD / TGFβ
  • EGFR
  • Wnt
  • PI3K / Akt / PTEN
  • TNF

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The Cell Cycle

Cell Cycle Phases

Proteins included are for yeast.

The Basic Cell Cycle

G1 is the phase after cell division. This phase begins with non cyclins present in the cell. This is important as it allows for the creation of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) at the origins of replication in DNA. The pre-RC complex consists of the ORC (origin recognition complex – a six unit complex) recruitment to the ORC site in the DNA. The ORC protein recruits Cdc6 (cell division control protein 6 homolog protein) and cdt1 in complex. These proteins are then important in loading mcm2-7 (mini chromosome maintenance proteins 2-7).

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#5 Genomics (needs work)

Topics Covered: (UNFINISHED)

    • Transcription
    • Translation
      1. basic codons
      2. protein processing
      3. post translational modifications
    • Gene regulation

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